Although there is a moderate amount of literature on the subject of Earth expansion, the historical small Earth models of Hilgenberg and Vogel, as well as other lesser published models, represent essentially the sum-
These models were developed and the majority conceived prior to or during the early stages of investigation into seafloor spreading and prior to the complete and accurate geological mapping and age dating of the oceans. Most of these early reconstructions of continents on small Earth models suffered from a lack of precise cartographic methods, as well as constraint of both ancient Earth radius and crustal assemblage. Only Vogel was fortunate enough to have been able to use published seafloor mapping to constrain crustal assemblages on his models.
Vogel concluded from his modelling studies that:
What should be noted here is that these early researchers all showed that, like Wegener and others had suggested for the Atlantic Ocean, if each of the oceans were removed and the remaining continents were physically fitted together they would neatly envelope the Earth with continental crust on a small Earth globe some 50 to 55 percent of its present size. This coincidence led both Hilgenberg and Vogel, and similarly Carey from his early Continental Drift studies and Jan Koziar from his extensive mathematical and crustal modelling, to come to similar conclusions that:
“Terrestrial expansion has brought about the splitting and gradual dispersal of continents as they moved radially outwards during geological time”.