BENEFITS TO SCIENCE
By simply changing our preconceived assumptions about the physical size and characteristics of the ancient Earth, the Expansion Tectonic small Earth crustal assemblages presented here represent a paradigm shift in how we visualise and understand the way the ancient supercontinents, modern continents, and modern oceans, have all originated and evolved through time.
Expansion Tectonic small Earth models tell a completely different story about the origin of Earth’s supercontinents, continents, and oceans: one that shows a very simple, evolving, predictable, easily understood, and holistic process involving a progressively changing Earth surface area and surface curvature through time.
The benefits of Expansion Tectonic small Earth modelling studies to modem science are discussed in detail in each of my publications. From this published research the benefits to science can be summarised as:
- Modelling studies show that all continental crusts unite precisely to form a complete global Pangaean supercontinental assemblage during the late-Permian Period, some 250 million years ago.
- From this Pangaean supercontinental assemblage, continental sedimentary basins are shown to merge to form a global network coinciding with continental seas. All known ancient supercontinents and continental seas are then, in turn, further defined by the variation in coastal outlines and sea-levels over time.
- When sediments deposited within the network of sedimentary basins are progressively returned to the exposed land surfaces, from where they were first eroded, and basins are progressively closed the remaining ancient continental crustal fragments are shown to retain a unique spatial assemblage.
- This spatial assemblage of ancient supercontinental crusts is maintained throughout a long history of Precambrian and Palaeozoic crustal extension, prior to crustal rupture during the late-Permian, followed by continental breakup and dispersal of the modern continents during the following Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.
- Sedimentary basins on each of the supercontinents are shown to coincide with a global network of crustal weakness. Within this network, crustal extension, generated during on-going increase in Earth radius, is focused, as well as on-going crustal mobility, mantle-derived heat flow, magmatic activity, crustal rupture, continental breakup, and eventual opening of each of the modern oceans to form the mid-ocean-rift zones.
- Break-up of the ancient Pangaean supercontinental crust during late-Permian times resulted in disruptions to the established polar ice-sheets, disruptions to the ancient continental seas, changes to sea-levels, and disruption of established climatic zones. These disruptive changes, in turn, affected plant and animal species habitats and either drove evolution of these species, affected their long-term decline, or caused their periodic extinction.
- When imposed constant surface area and constant Earth radius premises are removed from geophysical observations, these same geophysical observations, when applied to small Earth models, demonstrate that the data is consistent with an Expansion Tectonic Earth.
- The application of palaeomagnetism to an Expansion Tectonic Earth shows that all ancient magnetic poles cluster as diametrically opposed north and south poles on each small Earth model constructed. When used to determine an ancient Earth radius, this same palaeomagnetic evidence, traditionally used to negate Earth expansion, is instead shown to confirm Earth expansion.
- The application of geographical and biogeographical information to the small Earth models aptly quantifies crustal development on an Expansion Tectonic Earth.
- Coastal geography shows that large, conventional, Panthalassa, Iapetus, and Tethys Oceans were not present on a smaller radius Earth. Instead, this same coastal geography defines the presence of more restricted continental Panthalassa, Iapetus, and Tethys Seas, which represent precursors to the modern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and emergent Eurasian continent respectively.
- From this coastal geography the emergent land surfaces and coastal outlines define the location and outlines of the ancient Rodinia, Gondwana, and Pangaea supercontinents and smaller sub-continents.
- This coastal geography amply demonstrates an evolutionary progression and development of each of the ancient supercontinents throughout Earth history.
- These emergent supercontinents were intimately related to changes to the outlines of continental sedimentary basins, to changes incurred during crustal mobility, and changes to sea-levels as the modern oceans rapidly opened to the present-day.
- When dinosaur distributions, for example, are plotted on small Earth models their global distributions illustrate the ease and simplification of migration and biogeographical development. This contrasts strongly with plate tectonic reconstructions, where assemblage and movements of the continents do not correspond to the known, or necessary migration routes required by their established biogeographical boundaries.
- During continental break-up and opening of the modern oceans, traditional migration routes of the various marine and terrestrial species are shown to be disrupted, enabling species endemic to the various regions to interact and extend their boundaries with time. This either facilitated species migration by extending and expanding on existing migration routes, or caused species extinction because of a failure to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
- The distribution of climate-dependent rocks and animal species is shown to coincide precisely with climatic zones anticipated on an Expansion Tectonic Earth. These climatic indicators display a distinct latitudinal zonation paralleling the ancient equator, suggesting that an inclined Earth rotational axis inclined to the pole of the ecliptic was well established during at least the Palaeozoic Era and has persisted to the present-day.
- The proposed causal model for Expansion Tectonics involves an on-going input of observed ionised electron and proton particulate matter originating from the Sun. Particulate matter enters the Earth and recombines as new matter most likely within the 200 to 300 kilometres thick D” region, located at the base of the mantle directly above the core-mantle boundary. This particulate matter generation process represents the basis for formation of all elements and mineral species present on Earth. The increase in volume of new matter results in a swelling of the mantle. Mantle swell is then transferred to the outer crust as continental crustal extension which is currently seen and preserved as extension along the mid-ocean-rift zones, along with expulsion of volcanic lava, sea water, and atmospheric gases.
- The extensive global evidence investigated in my publications tells us that an Expansion Tectonic Earth is indeed a viable and demonstrable global tectonic process. At no stage has any fundamental physical law been violated, beyond removal of the commonly held assumption that Earth radius has remained constant throughout time.
In order to create small Earth models I simply remove from the Earth what was not previously there—intruded seafloor volcanic lava and eroded sediments—to end up with a Pangaean Earth comprising an assemblage of continental crustal components, and ultimately to a primitive Earth comprising an assemblage of equally primitive crustal components. I then simply displayed published physical data on the Expansion Tectonic small Earth models created and each of these model studies is shown to complement each other and fully substantiate an Expansion Tectonic Earth process.